, LDAP

, , , LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol - ) .

, , , .

, . , .

. , .

, LDAP, , , .

, Hallmark Cards (-, . ), , 90- . , , , , LAN Manager Microsoft.

1993 . , 6000 , , Windows NT Microsoft NetWare Novell. , NDS Novell Windows NT, 1995 . NDS.

Hallmark . , LAN Manager, - .

NDS . Hallmark Cards : NDS Lotus Development, cc:Mail. , Lotus Novell .

80- ISO X.500. (, -, . ) , 80000 .

- VINES Banyan Systems, cc:Mail Notes Lotus, GroupWise Novell, Windows NT Exchange Microsoft, .

1995 . . , , X.500 . Lotus Worldtalk.

Lotus GroupWise Novell, , Worldtalk, .

. . , . , : , .

.

X.500 , , , .

90- , , LDAP - X.500, . , 1996 . Netscape Communications .

Netscape, , , - , Rapport Communications (-, . ). Netscape 44 , Digital Equipment,Hewlett-Packard, Microsoft Novell, LDAP .

, LDAP. , Thompson Financial Services (TFS) , 45 . , cc:Mail Notes, Exchange, GroupWise Internet.

TFS . , , - , TFS .

Lotus, Netscape Worldtalk. , Lotus Windows NT, Netscape , .

TFS Worldtalk. cc:Mail . Notes. , TFS . - , , - .

Federal Express . , EMC2 Fischer International Systems, IBM 120 . .

, Federal Express , LDAP Lotus Netscape. Directory Server Netscape, .

Federal Express Netscape DirectoryServer, III . , , , , . , , Federal Express .

, . , . , Rapport Communications, , , .

, Microsoft Visual Basic

LDAP. , - , . LDAP , , .

C:EPCW#34NT5_20.__

LDAP-

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| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |- | | | | | | | | |

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|.| | | | ||蠠 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

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|523-7368| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

|www.ce- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

|soft.com| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

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|Control |Rialto | 12/96 |256 Mb | 61Mb |IMAP4, |TCP/ |Sola- | | * | * | | | | * | | * | * | * | * | * | * | * | * | * | * | * | * | | 100 |

|DataSys-|Intras-| | | |POP3, |IP |ris, | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |-|

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|- |Server | | | |MIME, | |IBM | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |-$30 |

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| | | | | |SKEY, | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |CRAM, | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |MD-5, | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |APOP | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

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|Digital |Mailbus| 9/92 | 12,8 Mb |8,4 Mb |Open |X.25,|DEC-net| | | | | | | * | | * | * | * | * | * | * | * | * | * | | * | * | * |$2500- |

|Equpment|400 | | | |VMS |TCP/ | OSI| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |40000 |

|,|Digital| | | |Digital|IP | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |-|

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|com | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | -|

| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |; |

| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |90 - |

| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |; |

| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |򠠠 |

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|ESYS |Simeon | 1/97 |Mac: 1Mb; | 4Mb |堠 |TCP/ |X.500 | | * | | | | | | | * | | | | | | | * | * | | * | * | * |$100 |

||4.1.0 | |Windows: | |LDAP- |IP |DSA- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ||

|. | | |16: 4 Mb; | |-| |蠠 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |-|

|| | |Windows | | | |LDAP- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |;|

|(800) | | |32: 4 Mb; | || |-| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |30 - |

|850-0114| | |Motif:4 Mb| | - | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |; |

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|Fujitsu |Team- | 2/97 |Windows |:| | |Windows| * | * | * | * | | | | * | * | | * | * | * | | | * | * | * | * | * | |$1495 |

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|-|Office | |32 Mb; |- |IMAP4 -|TCP/ |TSP/IP | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |-|

|.-|5.1 | | |:20Mb|-|IP | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ||

|, | | |16Mb | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |90 - |

|(888) | | | | || | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |; |

|248-9273| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

|www. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |90 - |

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|com | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

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|Hewlett-|Open- | 6/97 | |100 |Micro- |TCP/ |HP-UX, | | * | * | | * | | | | | * | * | * | * | * | | * | * | | | * | |$60 |

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|www.hp. | | | |-|cc: | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

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| | | | | |Mail |, | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

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| | | | | |soft |-| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |Inter- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

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| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

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| | | | | |cape | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |Navi- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |gator | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |3.0 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |Commu- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |nicator| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |4.0 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

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|Infonet |Messen-| 12/96 |64 Mb | 20Mb |Messen-|X.25,| SQL | | | | * | * | | | | | * | * | * | * | * | * | * | * | | * | * | * |$4500; |

|Services|ger | | | |ger |TCP/ | Server| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |30 - |

|-- |Direc- | | | |Server |IP | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |; |

|, |tory | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |30 - |

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| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

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|infonet.| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

|com | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

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|Isocor | NPlex | 3/97 | 32Mb | 1ᠠ |Windows|TCP/ |Windows| | | | | | | | | | | | | | * | | | * | | * | * | |-|

|- | | | |(- | NT |IP |NT 3.51| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

|, | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |ࠠ |

|. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |$395; |

|- | | | |ࠠ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |90 - |

|, | | | |-| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |; |

|(310) | | | |- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |90 - |

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|isocor. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

|com | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

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|Lotus |Lotus | 5/97 |Windows | 23Mb |Windows|AIX | | | | | | | | * | | | | | | | | | * | * | | * | | * |$35; |

|Develop-|Mail | |95: | |NT |4.1.4| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |90 - |

|ment |4.5 | |12Mb; | |Server |AIX | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |; |

|-| | |Windows | |3.51, |4.2, | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |30 - |

|, | | |NT: 16Mb | |4.0; |HP-UX| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |ꠠ |

|.-| | | | |Windows|10.01| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

|, | | | | |NT 3.5,|Net- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

|(800) | | | | |4.0; |Ware | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

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|lotus. | | | | |Windows|Ware | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

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| | | | | | |OS/2 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | | |Warp | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | | |Ser- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | | |ver, | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

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| | | | | | |Con- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | | |nect | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

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|Micro- |Micro- | 4/96 | 24Mb |24Mb |Windows|Net- |Windows| * | * | * | * | | | * | * | * | | | * | | | | * | * | * | | * | |- |

|soft |soft | | | |NT |Ware,|NT 3.5,| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ||

|,|Excange| | | |Server,|Win- |Windows| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |:|

|. - |Server | | | |- |dows |NT 4.0 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |$900 |

| |5.0 | | | | |NT, |c IIS | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

|(800) | | | | |-|Unix |3.0 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |-|

|426-9400| | | | |⠠ |(- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ||

|www. | | | | |Micro- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | $4859|

|micro- | | | | |soft |-| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 50 |

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| | | | | |soft | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Enter- |

| | | | | |Office | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |prise |

| | | | | | - | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |$3549 |

| | | | | |堠 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 25 |

| | | | | |- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |-|

| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ||

| | | | | |- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | $4859|

| | | | | |- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 50 |

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| | | | | |(Lotus,| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |; |

| | | | | |Smart- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |- |

| | | | | |Suite, | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |; |

| | | | | |Micro- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |-|

| | | | | |soft | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |- |

| | | | | |Proj- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |ect) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Inter- |

| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |net |

+--------+-------+--------+----------+-------+-------+-----+-------+----+------+-----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+----+----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+-----+-------+

|Netscape|Nets- | 6/97 |16Mb/ |20Mb/ |Nets- |TCP/ | | * | | * | | | | * | * | * | * | * | * | * | * | | * | * | * | * | * | * |$59, |

|Communi-|cape | |32Mb |50Mb |cape |IP | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |$79 |

|cations |Com- | | | |Enter- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

|-|munica-| | | |prise | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Commu- |

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||Sport | | | |Nets- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |$4995; |

|www. |3.0 | | | |cape | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |90 - |

|nets- | | | | |Messa- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |/ |

|cape. | | | | |ging | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |90 - |

|com | | | | |Server | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |; |

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| | | | | |Nets- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |- |

| | | | | |cape | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |Collab-| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |ra 3.0,| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | - |

| | | | | |Nets- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |- |

| | | | | |cape | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |/ |

| | | | | |commu- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |-|

| | | | | |nikator| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |- |

| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |LDAP- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | || | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

+--------+-------+--------+----------+-------+-------+-----+-------+----+------+-----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+----+----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+-----+-------+

|Novell |Group- | 4/97 |Windows |Windows|- |Ban- | | * | | * | * | * | * | * | * | * | * | * | * | | | * | | * | * | | | * | $718|

|, |Wise | |3.1: 8Mb; |3.1: | |yan |NetWare| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |ࠠ |

|. ,|5.1 | |Windows |2Mb | |LAN |4.x | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

|(800) | | |95: 16Mb; |( | |Mana-| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |-|

|453-1267| | |Windows ||Banyan |ger, | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ||

|www. | | |NT 4.0: |- |IM, |LAN | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

|novell. | | |24Mb |), |cc:Mail|Ser- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |$ |

|com | | | |20ᠠ |Digital|ver, | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |980000 |

| | | | |(|All-in-|LAN- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |ࠠ |

| | | | |-|One, |tasti| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |10000 |

| | | | |);|Group- |Net- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |-|

| | | | |Windows|Wise, |BIOS,| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ||

| | | | |95 |HP |Net- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |; |

| | | | |NT 4.0:|Open- |Ware | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |򠠠 |

| | | | |5Mb(|Mail, |3.x | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | ||Lotus |4.x, | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | |- |Notes, |Path-| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | |), |Memo |works| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | |24ᠠ |MHS/ |Unix,| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | |(|Global |Win- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | |-|MHS, |dows | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | |) |Micro- |NT | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |soft | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |Exchan-| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |ge, | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |Micro- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |soft | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |Mail, | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |OV/ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |VM/ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |PROFS | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |SMTP, | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |SNADS | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

+--------+-------+--------+----------+-------+-------+-----+-------+----+------+-----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+----+----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+-----+-------+

|WordTalk|NetTalk| 6/97 | 32Mb | 2b | |Win- |Pen- | | | | | | | | | | * | * | * | * | | | | * | | * | * | |$1995 |

|- | 4.2 | | | ||dows |tuim, | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 50 |

|, | | | | |POP |NT, |Windows| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |-|

|. | | | | |蠠 |TCP/ |NT | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |- |

|-| | | | |IMAP, |IP |Aplica-| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |; |

|, | | | | |Nets- | |tion | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |90 - |

|(800) | | | | |cape | |Server | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |; |

|454-4674| | | | |Naviga-| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |30 - |

|www. | | | | |tor, | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |; |

|world- | | | | |Eudora | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

|talk.com| | | | |Pro, | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |Windows| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |95 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |Inbox, | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |Quick- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |Mail | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |Pro, | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |Pine, | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |Simeon.| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | || | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |-| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |Miro- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |soft | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |Exchan-| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |ge, | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |Lotus | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |Notes, | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |Lotus | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |cc: | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |Mail, | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |Micro- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |soft | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | |Mail | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

+--------+-------+--------+----------+-------+-------+-----+-------+----+------+-----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+----+----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+-----+-------+

20.

. .